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If I refuel with hydrogen in a certain time and under certain environmental conditions, what is the maximum temperature and fill level I reach?

Project Objective:

Optimization of the filling time of hydrogen tanks as well as guaranteeing safety during hydrogen refueling (e.g. maintaining the maximum permitted temperature, ensuring that the tank is not overfilled, etc.). Compliance with the SAE J2601 standard etc.


Various project managers, development managers, managing directors, etc. from automobile manufacturers, oil & gas companies, plant constructors, railway technology suppliers, etc.


When refueling hydrogen to 70MPa, impermissibly high temperatures of over 85°C and filling degrees of over 100% can be achieved. Simulations are a very good tool to ensure compliance with regulations and also to avoid local overheating. These help our clients to ensure that the operating conditions do not lead to risks for the client already at an early stage of the project.


For the simulation of hydrogen refueling, we use two globally recognized and proven tools.

Our intensively validated simulation program in Matlab, with which we have carried out all hydrogen refueling simulations for the globally valid SAE J2601 standard, serves, among other things, to quickly calculate a large number of cases.

Our equally intensively tested simulation program in StarCCM+ enables us to make precise calculations of the temperature distribution in tanks. This is used, for example, when our clients want to know the temperature at the liner-boss transition as a function of time or the incoming mass flow.

Both models take into account the complete real gas thermodynamics of hydrogen, have been intensively validated at Powertech Labs in Vancouver and have proven themselves for dozens of clients from Japan to California.

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